River Processes

IGCSE Geography candidates should be able to
- Demonstrate an understanding of the work of a river in eroding, transporting and depositing. Reference should be made to the erosional processes of hydraulic action, corrasion, corrosion (solution) and attrition. River transport should include the processes of traction, saltation, suspension and solution. Reasons why and where in a river's course deposition takes place should be studied. It should be realised that the effectiveness of the river processes concerned will vary according to the volume and velocity of the running water and the nature of the load (boulders, pebbles, sand and silt) which in turn will be affected by the bedrock along the course of the river.
- Describe and explain the landforms associated with these processes. A study should be made of the following: Forms of river valleys - long profile and shape in cross section, rapids, waterfalls, potholes, meanders, oxbow lakes, deltas, levées and flood plains.

=The inter-relationship of Physical and Human Geography

GCSE Geography candidates should be able to
- Demonstrate an understanding that the natural environment presents hazards and offers opportunities for human activities. Reference should be made to the hazards posed by volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tropical storms, flooding and drought. Use could be made of the study of contemporary examples to illustrate. This information
would provide candidates with valuable case study information. Such examples could form resource material given in examination questions when candidates might be expected to illustrate inter-relationships between the natural environment and human activities from the data presented. Reference to the opportunities and problems posed for people could be incorporated when studies are made of the natural environment, for example the advantages and difficulties offered by river flood plains and deltas.

The Hydrological Cycle
The hydrological cycle is the key to understanding many of the processes involved in the systems approach.

Processes within a river The Upper Course The Middle Course The Lower Course Pollution of a River Flooding of a River Management of a River