IGCSE Syllabus

Economic Development



Click on the links below to jump to sections that are part of this IGCSE module.

Leisure Activities and Tourism (4 weeks)
Agricultural Systems (4 weeks)
Industrial Systems (4 weeks)
Energy and Water Resources (3 weeks)
Environmental Risks and Benefit (3 weeks)

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Leisure Activities and Tourism



IGCSE Geography candidates should be able to://
- Describe and explain the growth of leisure facilities and tourism in relation to the main attractions of the physical and human landscape in areas selected for study.
- Demonstrate an understanding that the effects of a growth in tourism are generally positive and that careful management is needed if problems are to be avoided. Reference could be made to advantages accruing from tourism such as growth in income, an increase in foreign exchange, employment opportunities, the development of infrastructure and facilities which may be used by the local population, the encouragement of other developments to take place in an area, cultural advantages etc. Disadvantages might include seasonal unemployment, under-use of facilities at certain times of the year, increased congestion, pollution, a shortage of services e.g., water supplies, social/cultural problems, damage to the physical landscape etc. A selected sample study should be used to illustrate both the benefits and disadvantages associated with the growth of tourism.

WEEK 1.**
Key Concepts and Learning Objectives.
  • What is a tourist, and what are the different perceptions that we have?
  • The growth of tourism as a global industry.
  • Analysis and presentation of key statistics.
  • What can be gained from an analysis of international tourist arrivals and receipts of different countries.

Consideration of global tourism statistics
Wikipedia article on tourism in general, some good information
The changing nature of tourism over the last 50 years

HOMEWORK Due Tuesday 5th january.
To complete Christmas holiday work booklet. Remember that these are essential case studies for tourism so the questions need to be completed as fully as possible.
Tourism in an LEDC area of Machu Picchu, Peru.
Tourism in an MEDC area, the Ski industry and Europe's endangered slopes.


WEEK 2.
Key Concepts and Learning Objectives
  • Why is Skiing so popular?
  • What are the attractions for non-skiiers?
  • What are the benefits and disadvantages of the growth of skii resorts?
  • Why was a National Park network set up in the UK?
  • What is a honeypot?
  • What are the problems created by the numbers of tourists to a National Park?
  • What are the possible soulutions to the problems?

Issues with Skiing in Cormayeur
Newspaper article on Ski resorts diversifying
Tourism in the Lake District
Wikipedia article on Lake District
Case Study on lake District (brochure using information from the textbook)
Virtual tour of the lake district and villages (you must have google Earth turned on)

HOMEWORK Set Tuesday 5th Jan. due Wednesday 6th Jan.
Read pages 162-3 in your text book and then answer question 2 on page 177.


WEEK 3.
Key Concepts and Learning Obectives
  • Positive impact of tourism.
  • Negative impact of tourism
  • Tourism in LEDC┬┤s

Tourism in Kenya
Sex tourism in Kenya
Mother and daughter killed by an elephant in Kenya
BBC Country profile on Kenya
BBC Kenya tourism in crisis
Wikipedia tourism in Kenya excellent general information article
Eco tourism

Click here for full screen version


HOMEWORK Set Tuesday 12 Jan. due Wednesday 13 Jan.
Complete question 5 on page 178 and question 6 on page 179 in your text book. New Wider World.


WEEK 4
Key concepts and Learning Objectives
  • Tourism and the environment.
  • Sustainability in tourism.
  • Why is it important to be aware of our impact as tourists
  • What is carbon offsetting?

Click here for full screen version


Click here for full screen version



HOMEWORK Set Tuesday 19 January and due Thursday 21 January.
Develop 9 iphone or ipod touch applications that would be useful as a tourist.
eg. automated money converter.
you say it and the app. translates it
use the following powerpoint as a template to design the apps.



ALL CLASSWORK AND HOMEWORK WILL BE COLLECTED IN FOR MARKING ON THURSDAY 21 JANUARY, NON PRODUCTION OF WORK WILL RESULT IN
DEPARTMENT, HUMANITIES OR FRIDAY DETENTIONS.



END OF MODULE TEST - Thursday 14th January
Will consist of several short answer questions that will test your overall knowledge of the subject and an extended answer question testing your in depth knowledge of a single case study or a variety of case studies.

KEYWORDS GLOSSARY
You will need to be able to clearly define all of the following terms.
  • Tourism
  • Tourist
  • Sustainable Tourism
  • Economic Development
  • Tourist receipts
  • Tourist arrivals
  • Resort
  • Leisure tourism
  • Mass tourism
  • Ecotourism
  • Honeypot
  • Economic colonialism
  • Multiplier effect

PAST PAPER QUESTIONS

  • For a named area which you have studies, explain why the tourist industry is important. You should refer to the areas physical and human attractions. (7 marks)
  • Areas at risk from economic development need careful management. Choose one of the following economic activities tourism, agriculture, manufacturing industry. Name an area which you have studied where the environment is at risk from the activity which you have chosen. Describe the attempts which have been made to maintain, conserve or improve the quality of the environment of your chosen area. (7 marks)
  • Describe the advantages of the development of tourism to either a named area or region that you have studied. (5 marks)


INTERNET RESOURCES
Wikipedia
Is this the future of tourism ?
Or is this the future of tourism ?
Or is this the future of tourism ?
Or is this thefuture of tourism ?

Global Eye tourism in St Lucia
Global Eye tourism in the Gambia
GCSE tourism in Thailand
BBC Bitesize sustainable conservation and tourism
S Cool tourism and resources
Climate change to reshape tourism
Benidorm is the new face of eco-tourism




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Agricultural Systems



IGCSE Geography candidates should be able to:
- Describe in general terms the main features of an agricultural system: inputs, processes and outputs.
- Describe the influence of natural and human inputs on the processes and outputs of the two agricultural systems listed in the Syllabus [a large-scale system of commercial farming and small-scale subsistence farming]. Studies should include natural inputs (relief, climate and soil) and human inputs (economic, social and sometimes political). Their combined influences on the scale of production, methods of organisation and the products of each system should be studied. Reference may be made to an example such as plantation agriculture or extensive commercial cereal farming or extensive livestock production etc., to illustrate a large-scale system of commercial farming. Examples such as intensive subsistence rice cultivation or shifting cultivation etc. could profitably illustrate a system of small-scale subsistence farming. Other illustrations might be selected rather than the above. In each case reference should be made to a detailed case study.
- Recognise the causes and effects of food shortages. Shortages of food may be related to natural problems such as soil exhaustion, drought, floods, tropical cyclones, pests, disease etc. There should be an awareness of the effects of these natural problems on selected areas within LEDCs. Economic and political factors and their effects upon food shortages should be noted, for example low capital investment, poor distribution /transport difficulties, wars etc. The effects of food shortages in encouraging food aid and measures such as those of the 'Green Revolution' to produce more food should also be considered


WEEK 1.
Key Concepts and Learning Objectives
  • What are systems in Geography?
  • What are the different classifications of farming?
  • How has farming changed?
  • What are the main factors that impact on farming globally and in the UK?

Pastoral upland farming in the UK
Case Study on the UK
Large scale Commercial mixed farming in Denmark
Case Study on Denmark

Click here for full screen version



HOMEWORK set Tuesday 26th Jan due Thursday 28th Jan.
Read pages 102-3 in New Wider World, answer question 4 on page 116.
Hill farming and farming in the UK notes
Check out the actions of Moofeus in the Meatrix!


WEEK 2.
Key Concepts and Learning Objectives

  • What is subsistence farming?
  • Why is subsistence farming so prevalent?
  • What are the recent changes in subsistence farming?
  • What has been the impact of the Green Revolution?

Types of farming glossary sheet and UK case studies
Green Revolution note taking frame

Subsistence farming in the Ganges, worksheet for ICT lesson thursday 4th Feb

HOMEWORK set Thursday 4th Feb due Tuesday 9th.
Educational and fun, what more could you ask for? Play the farming sim game You need to play the game with the aim of keeping you family as healthy as is possible and in order to do that you have to make as much money as possible.
When you have finished the game you need to think about the best way in which to be a successful subsistence farmer and them write an answer to the following essay title. Your answer needs to be at least half a page of A4.
Explain with reference to an are or region that you have studied why subsistence farming is not the most efficient method of farming. You need to refer to labour, costs, and production. (10 marks)


WEEK 3
Key Concepts and Learning Objectives
  • Why does the world suffer from food shortages?
  • What is food aid?
  • What are the physical and human causes of food shortages?
  • What is the World Food Programme?


HOMEWORK set Tuesday 9th Feb due Thursday 11 Feb
Complete the following essay using two links, both from different categories.
In many of the worlds developing countries there is large scale famine. This can be as a result of physical factors, human factors and economic factors. Explain why there may be food shortages in some parts of the world using examples that you have studied.

Human
Conflict is feeding global hunger War and conflict
Zimbabwe severe hunger looms Poverty
Commercial Farming
Transport problems

Physical
shortage of food and water Earthquake in Haiti
Soil exhaustion
Drought
Flood
Tropical cyclones
Disease
Pests




WEEK 4
Key Concepts and Learning Objectives
  • What was the Green Revolution?
  • Why was the Green Revolution going to change the face of farming across LEDC's?
  • Why do multinationals now dominate the production of hybrid seeds?

HOMEWORK set Tuesday 23rd Feb due Thursday 25th Feb
Play the UN Food Force game
Watch the following videos to ensure you fully understand all of the issues associated with the Green Revolution.
The Green Revolution , Wikipedia

From the Bengal Famine to the Green Revolution

Watch the following presentation on the Green Revolution and then make about half a page of brief notes.




ALL CLASSWORK AND HOMEWORK WILL BE COLLECTED IN FOR MARKING ON THURSDAY 25th FEBRUARY, NON PRODUCTION OF WORK WILL RESULT IN DEPARTMENT, HUMANITIES OR FRIDAY DETENTIONS.


END OF MODULE TEST Thursday 25th February
Will consist of several short answer questions that will test your overall knowledge of the subject and an extended answer question testing your in depth knowledge of a single case study or a variety of case studies.

KEYWORDS GLOSSARY
You will need to be able to clearly define all of the following terms.

  • Green Revolution
  • Commercial farming
  • Subsistence farming
  • Arable farming
  • Mixed farming
  • Closed system
  • Open system


PAST PAPER QUESTIONS

For either high-technology industries or small-scale cash crop farming, explain how: - transport, - labour, - markets, - at least one other factor influenced its growth at a named location you have studied. (8 marks)
There is large scale famine in some developing countries. This may be they result of: physical factors, economic factors, political factors. Explain why there are food shortages in some parts of the world. You may refer to examples which you have studied. (7 marks)
All farming systems have inputs, processes and outputs. Name an example which you have studied of either small-scale subsistence farming or large- scale commercial farming. Give the name of an area where your chosen farming type takes place. Describe the inputs, processes and outputs of this farming system. (7 marks)
Areas at risk from economic development need careful management. Choose one of the following economic activities. tourism, agriculture, manufacturing industry. Name an area which you have studied where the environment is at risk from the activity which you have chosen. Describe the attempts which have been made to maintain, conserve or improve the quality of the environment of your chosen area. (7 marks)
Apart from the development of irrigation, describe how farmers in many parts of the world are attempting to produce more food. (6 marks)

INTERNET RESOURCES

You will never look at commercial meat farming in the same light ever again!

Watch this film if you are a little bit fuzzy on the Green Revolution
Hill Farming seems to be a bit of a problem also, so hopefully Sticky should be able to sort you out, but be warned its scary!
BBC Bitesize Agriculture
S Cool Farming and Agriculture
The methane makers , BBC
What the seed producers don't want you to know about the Green Revolution






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Industrial Systems



IGCSE Geography candidates should be able to:
- Classify industries into primary, secondary and tertiary.
- Describe and explain how the proportions employed in primary, secondary and tertiary industries differ in LEDCs and MEDCs and may change with time and level of development.
- Describe and identify the influence of inputs on the processes and outputs (products and waste) of industrial systems.
- Describe and explain the factors influencing the distribution and location of high technology industries and one other manufacturing/ processing industry. Distribution should be studied on a global/ national scale. Study should also be made of particular zones and/or industrial plants with respect to locational and siting factors


WEEK 1
Key Concepts and Learning Objectives





HOMEWORK


WEEK 2
Key Concepts and Learning Objectives


HOMEWORK


WEEK 3
Key Concepts and Learning Objectives


HOMEWORK


WEEK 4
Key Concepts and Learning Objectives


HOMEWORK


ALL CLASSWORK AND HOMEWORK WILL BE COLLECTED IN FOR MARKING ON THURSDAY , NON PRODUCTION OF WORK WILL RESULT IN DEPARTMENT, HUMANITIES OR FRIDAY DETENTIONS.




END OF MODULE TEST
Will consist of several short answer questions that will test your overall knowledge of the subject and an extended answer question testing your in depth knowledge of a single case study or a variety of case studies.

KEYWORDS GLOSSARY
You will need to be able to clearly define all of the following terms.

PAST PAPER QUESTIONS

INTERNET RESOURCES




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Energy and Water Resources

IGCSE Geography candidates should be able to
- Describe the significance of fuelwood in LEDCs and of non-renewable fossil fuels in terms of their availability in certain areas and in terms of the contribution made by coal, oil, natural gas and wood in supplying vast amounts of energy.
- Describe the growing significance of renewable energy supplies [geothermal, wind, running water, solar, biogas] to reduce dependence upon fossil fuels, to alleviate the world's energy crisis, and to offer opportunities for the development of alternative energy sources.
- Describe the factors influencing the siting of different types of electrical power stations with reference to those listed in the Syllabus [thermal, hydro-electric power, nuclear].
- Describe the uses made of water for agriculture, domestic and industrial demand. Candidates should also recognise that in certain areas there are water shortages which impact upon the local people and the potential for development. This leads to competition for the use of the available water resources and requires careful management.
All these aspects would benefit from the selection of appropriate case studies


WEEK 1
Key Concepts and Learning Objectives
  • What are the types or non renewable and renewable fuel we use?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages?
  • Why is China so reliant on coal?
  • What is the environmental, social, political impact of that reliance?
  • What is the impact of reliance of wood as a fuel?
  • What are the alternatives to wood for LEDC's?

Click here for full screen version



HOMEWORK

Read the enclosed article on fuelwood as an energy resource in Mali, and then answer the following questions.
1. What is fuelwood?
2. Why is it such an important source of energy in the developing world?
3.Where is Mali?
4.Describe and explain the energy situation in Mali?


WEEK 2
Key Concepts and Learning Objectives
  • Where would you site a power station?
  • Are there different criteria for nuclear, HEP, solar and wind generating power stations?
  • NIMBY?
Case study of a power station


HOMEWORK

Click here for full screen version


Using the following information complete the above class tools diagram, print out and hand in.
The syllabus states that you have



WEEK 3
Key Concepts and Learning Objectives
  • Water, its use and abuse.


HOMEWORK
Watch the following videos


RESOURCES
Pani the handpump game from wateraid


ALL CLASSWORK AND HOMEWORK WILL BE COLLECTED IN FOR MARKING ON , NON PRODUCTION OF WORK WILL RESULT IN DEPARTMENT, HUMANITIES OR FRIDAY DETENTIONS.


END OF MODULE TEST
Will consist of several short answer questions that will test your overall knowledge of the subject and an extended answer question testing your in depth knowledge of a single case study or a variety of case studies.


KEYWORDS GLOSSARY
You will need to be able to clearly define all of the following terms.

PAST PAPER QUESTIONS
Identify a form of energy and describe how it's use threatens the natural environment. You may refer to named areas that you have studied.
(7 marks)
Why is it necessary to increase the production of energy? Explain how you think it might be possible to increase energy production while at the same time protecting the environment? (7 marks)


INTERNET RESOURCES
Hydro-electricity in Wales , turning streams into cash
What to use when the oil runs out BBC

Wikipedia water resources
Absolutely the best website ever on energy resources





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Environmental Risks and Benefit

IGCSE Geography candidates should be able to
- Demonstrate the need for sustainable development, resource conservation and management in different environments. It is not intended that candidates should be familiar with a wide variety of illustrations here. Rather that by the use of well selected case studies, possibly integrated with the study of other concepts referred to above, candidates become familiar with general principles and can illustrate from these examples.
- Identify and describe the benefits associated with the development of agriculture, manufacturing industries, energy production, tourism and transport. This could be incorporated with the studies outlined above (3.1 - 3.4).
- Describe how these developments may also pose threats to the environment when natural ecosystems are interfered with including: soil erosion, global warming, and pollution (air, water, noise and visual).
- Identify areas at risk from these threats to the environment and describe attempts made to maintain, conserve or improve the quality of the environment


WEEK 1
Key Concepts and Learning Objectives

  • What is sustainable development?


HOMEWORK

WEEK 2
Key Concepts and Learning Objectives
  • What is recycling and resource substitution


HOMEWORK

WEEK 3
Key Concepts and Learning Objectives
  • What are the main environmental issues facing the world today?
  • What is climate change?



HOMEWORK



ALL CLASSWORK AND HOMEWORK WILL BE COLLECTED IN FOR MARKING ON THURSDAY 21 JANUARY, NON PRODUCTION OF WORK WILL RESULT IN DEPARTMENT, HUMANITIES OR FRIDAY DETENTIONS.



END OF MODULE TEST
Will consist of several short answer questions that will test your overall knowledge of the subject and an extended answer question testing your in depth knowledge of a single case study or a variety of case studies.

KEYWORDS GLOSSARY
You will need to be able to clearly define all of the following terms.

PAST PAPER QUESTIONS

INTERNET RESOURCES